Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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   First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
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pressed the most violent displeasure at the
hasty officiousness of her servants, in hopes
by such an artifice to transfer to them the
blame of Mary's death.
On the 6th of February, 1587, the war-
rant was brought to Fotheringay by the
earls of Shrewsbury and Kent, who informed
Mary that she must prepare for death the
next morning. Mary received their mes-
sage wiLli composure, and employed her-
self during the remainder of the day in
writing letters, in dividing the few valua-
bles she had amongst her servants, and in
taking leave of them. She retired to rest
at her usual time, but arose after a few
hours' sleep, and spent the rest of the
night in prayer. Towards morning she at-
tired herself in the only rich dress she had
reserved — a black satin gown, trimmed
with pearls and jet, over a crimson velvet
petticoat. A white lawn veil was thrown
over her head; and when she was summon-
ed to the hall where she was to die, she
took a crucifix and a prayer-book in her
hand, and, leaning on sir Amias Paulet, she
walked with a serene and composed coun-
tenance. She was met on the way by her
faithful servant, Andrew Melvil, who flung
himself on his knees before her, and burst
into an agony of grief. Mary endeavoured
to console him with the utmost firmness;
but, on charging him with her last message
to her son, she melted into tears. She
then entered the hall in which the scaffold
had been raised, and saw, with an undis-
mayed countenance, the two executioners
standing there, and all the preparations
for her death. The place was crowded
with spectators, who seemed to forget her
faults, and the heavy accusations which
had been formerly brought against her, in
compassion for her present calamitous con-
After some time spent in prayer, she
began, with the aid of her women, to un-
robe herself; and, seeing them ready to
break forth into tears and lamentations,
she made to them, by putting her finger
to her lips, a sign to forbear. She then
gave them her blessing; a handkerchief
was bound round her eyes; and without
any visible trepidation she laid her head
upon the block, and with two strokes it
was severed from her body. Thus perished
this unfortunate princess, in the 45th year
of her age. She had been a queen almost
from her birth. From the age of six to
that of nineteen she had been trained to
levity and dissipation in the French court.
From her nineteenth to her twenty-seventh
year she had lived in Scotland, in a suc-
cession, if not of crimes, yet of follies and
sorrows. The nineteen remaining years of
her life she had passed in a melancholy
captivity, a prey to all the miseries of re-
straint, suspense, and impatience. But time
and affliction had neither subdued her
spirit, nor wholly destroyed, though its
brilliance was faded, her extraordinary
When the news of the execution of the
queen of Scots was brought to Elizabeth,
she thought it necessary to assume the ap-
pearance of excessive grief; she wore mourn-
ing, and for some days shut herself up with
only her women. The king of Scotland
expressed great resentment at the murder
of his mother, and threatened Elizabeth
with a war; but it was so much the inter-
est of both sovereigns to keep at peace,
that James, who was not of a warlike dis-
position, suffered his indignation to subside.
Philip of Spain had long been meditat-
ing an invasion of England; and, in 1588.
having completed his preparations, and col-
lected his forces, he felt so certain of con-
quest, that he called his fleet, which was
now assembled in the Tagus, the Invincible
Armada. His land forces, to the number
of fifty thousand men, under the duke of
Parma, were marched to the coast of the
Netherlands, where a sufficient number of
transports were prepared. And, indeed,
the whole armament, by land and sea, was
so very powerful, both in the size and
number of ships, in the strength and dis-
cipline of the Spanish soldiery, and the
gallantry and spirit of the numerous volun-
teers who flocked to serve in it, that it
seemed more than sufficient to overwhelm
tliis little island.
The Protestant states, who considered
the queen of England as the bulwark of
their religion, looked on in fearful expec-
tation at this immense host which was
now so confidently advancing against her.
Elizabeth, meanwhile, sure of the affection
of her people, at least of all those who
were Protestants, was undismayed. She
made every necessary preparation for de-
fence: but the English fleet, when collect-
ed all together, was so small in comparison
with that of the Spaniards, that her chief
reUance was on the superior skill and bra-
very of her seamen and officers. The fleet
was commanded by lord Howard of Effing-
ham. Drake, Hawking, and Frobisher serv-
ed under him. The land forces, which
were very inferior to Philip's, both in
number and experience, were divided into
several bodies. One, commanded by lord
Hunsdon, was appointed to guard the queen's