Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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   First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
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This encouraged the duke of Richmond to
raise an army, and to endeavour to get the
crown from the detested Richard. The
duke of Richmond belonged to the red-
rose party, that is, the house of Lancaster;
and he had been obliged to quit the king-
dom whilst the kings of the house of York
were in power. Trusting that the people,
from hatred of their tyrant, would support
his cause, he came over from France with
a small army, and landed at Milford Haven,
in Wales, without opposition. Richard,
who was a bold man, soon prepared to
meet him. Richmond had been joined by
many of the English; and the two armies
met at Bosworth Field, in Leicestershire,
when Richmond was completely successful,
and Richard was killed.
Richmond was then proclaimed king by
the title of Henry the Seventh, to the great
joy of the nation. It is true that he had
no real right to the crown; he got it by
conquest: but the people were so glad to
get rid of Richard, that they did not seem
desirous of inquiring too strictly into the
claims of Henry. (G. Davys.)
Henry VIII., when he was eighteen, be-
gan his reign by marrying Catherine of
Arragon, and sacrificing Empson and Dud-
ley to the popular indignation. His jovial
manners, the splendour of his court, the
trophies won during a short war with the
French, whom he defeated at the battle
of the Spurs, Aug. 1513, while their allies
the Scotch, who had attempted to make
a diversion in their favour by invading
England, were signally discomfited at Flod-
denfield by the earl of Surrey, king Ja-
mes IV, and many of his nobles being
slain; all tended to make him acceptable
to his subjects; who, however, had soon to
pay for his extravagance, and were harass-
ed by forced loans and other illegal exac-
tions! Luckily for him, much of the odium
fell upon his proud and overbearing chan-
cellor, Thomas Wolsey, archbishop of York
and cardinal, the Pope's legate in England;
to whose hatred and Henry's jealousy, Ed-
ward, duke of Buckingham, fell a victim,
May 1521.
The age of Henry VIII. was the era of
the Protestant Reformation; which began
in Germany, where the sale of indulgences,
or pardons for sin, stirred up Martin Luther,
an Augustinian friar, to preach against the
abuses of popery, a. d. 1517. In England,
the Reformation, at first, was strongly with-
stood by the king; who even wrote a book
on the Seven Sacraments against Luther,
and had also received from the Pope the
title of Defendei- of the Faith. But when
age and ill-health had impaired the beauty
of Catherine of Arragon, Henry, who had
long been an unfaithful husband, began to
entertain scruples as to the lawfulness of
his marriage, which were much increased
by his passion for Anne Boleyn, one of her
maids of honour; and when he applied to
Pie Pope for a divorce, he was enraged
to find himself thwarted by the influence
of the Emperor Charles V., his wife's ne-
phew. At the end of two years, Wolsey
and cardinal Campeggio were appointed as
the Pope's legates to try the question in
England, when the high-minded queen pro-
tested against the authority of the court,
solemnly declaring to the king's face that
his brother never really was her husband,
June 1529: but in a few weeks proceedings
were suspended, and the cause was revoked
to Rome. Wolsey now fell into disgrace;
and though allowed to retire to York for
a short time, he was arrested on a charge
of high treason, an event soon followed
by his death at Leicester Abbey, where
he had been forced by illness to stop on
his |way to London. Henry also resolved
to cast off his allegiance to the Pope, and
to get himself acknowledged as 'the Su-
preme Head on earth of the Church of
England.' The clergy, though they insist-
ed on adding the words, *as far as the law
of Christ will allow,' to the terms of their
submission, were forced to yield to his will,
March 1531; the opinions of several uni-
versities unfavourable to the validity of the
marriage, though not gained by the fairest
means, were acted upon by the advice of
Thomas Cranmer, a learned divine; and he
at length privately married Anne Boleyn,
his patience being worn out during the
slow progress of his negotiations with Rome,
Jan. 1533. Soon after this, he made Cran-
mer archbishop of Canterbui7; who annulled
the first, and sanctioned the second mar-
riage. The next year, the quarrel between
the king and the Pope became irreconcile-
able; the latter pronouncing the marriage
with Catherine to be valid, while in Eng-
land the Act of Supremacy was passed,
which declared the sovereign to be the
head of the Church, and entirely abolished
the papal jurisdiction. All who denied
either the supremacy or the legitimacy of
the king's daughter by Anne Boleyn, were
held guilty of treason; and on this account,
John Fisher, the bishop of Rochester, sir