Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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   First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
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in most places greatly decayed, and in some
are mere heaps of ruins. There are two
principal gates; the one facing the east,
the other the west. Over the latter is the
Eagle Tower, already mentioned, a lofty
and massive structure, with three slender
angular turrets issuing from its summit,
which crown it with lightness and grace.
This tower forms now by far the finest
ornament of the ancient castle. It takes
its name from a stone figure of an eagle
which is placed over the gate, and which
tradition asserts to be of Roman workman-
ship. The imperial ensign is said to have
been found among the ruins of Segontium.
The view of the surrounding country from
the top of this tower is of great extent
and beauty.
Besides the Eagle Tower, and that over
the eastern entrance, over the gateway, in
which is a statue of Edward I., armed with
a dagger, there are numerous smaller tow-
ers, all angularly-shaped, but of various
figures, some being five sides, others six-
sided, and others having eight sides. The
walls, which are pierced with narrow slits
or loop-holes, are in general nearly eight
feet thick; but the thickness of those of
the Eagle Tower is not less than nine feet
and a half. The only staircase that is not
in ruins is that in the Eagle Tower.
The history of Caernarvon Castle has
scarcely been marked by any memorable
events. In 1294 it was surprised and taken
by a band of Welsh insurgents, who put
the English garrison to the sword. It also
several times changed its masters in the
course of the civil wars of the seventeenth
century; but it never has stood any length-
ened siece.
The most obvious and simple bridge is
that formed by single trees thrown across
small streams, or, in case of broader
streams, by fastening the roots of a tree on
each bank, and twisting together their bran-
ches in the middle. The next step is not
much more complex; for in a space too
great for the before-mentioned operations,
few manual arts were required to form ro-
pes of rushes, or leathern thongs, to stretch
as many of them as were necessary between
trees, or posts, on the opposite banks, and
connect and cover them so as to form a
slight bridge. The following accounts,
given by Don Antonio de Ulloa, will afford
a notion how these sorts of bridges were
constructed and used in the mountainous
parts of South America : — 'Several bu-
jucos are twisted together, so as to form
a large cable of the length required. Sis
of these are carried from one side of the
river to the other, two of which are con-
siderably higher than the other four. On
the latter are laid sticks in a transverse
direction, and, over these, branches of trees
as a flooring; the former are fastened
to the four which form the bridge, and
by that means serve as rails for the se-
curity of the passenger, who would other-
wise be in no small danger from the con-
tinual oscillation. Some of the rivers,'
says the same author, *are crossed by
means of a tartabita. The tartabita is only
a single rope, made of bujuco, or thongs
of an ox's hide, and consisting of several
strands, and about six or eight inches in
thickness. This rope in extended from one
side of the river to the other, and fastened
on each bank to strong posts. From the
tartabita hangs a kind of leathern hammock,
capable of holding a man; and a clue is
attached at each end. A rope is fastened
to either clue, and extended to each side
of the river, for drawing the hammock to
the side intended. On one of the banks is
a kind of wheel, or winch, to slacken the
tartabita to the degree required; and the
hammock being pushed on first setting off,
is quickly landed on the other side. For
carrying over the mules two tartabitas are
required, one for each side of the river,
and the ropes are much thicker and slacker.
The animal being secured with girths round
the belly, neck, and legs, is launched in
mid-air, and immediately landed on the op-
posite bank. In this manner rivers are
crossed between thirty and forty fathoms
from shore to shore, at a height above the
water of twenty-five fathoms.' In China
and Thibet there were, at an early period,
suspension-bridges formed by cables of ve-
getable substances; but the nations of the
East, after having, in the earliest times,
made astonishing progress, stopped all at
once in their march.
Suspension-bridges were not considered
applicable to the purposes of a commercial
country until within a comparatively recent
period. They had been superseded by sub-
stantial structures, in which utility was join-
ed to magnificence; but these, as they
could not always be carried over turbulent
streams, did not satisfy the ever-active
wants of an industrious people. About a
century ago, a bridge of iron-wire was sus-
pended over the Tees, at Winch, near Dur-