Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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   First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
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part of the world, except by our 'men in
Kendall Green.' The youth of the kingdom
were trained, under very severe penalties,
from the age of seven. The bow was to
be the length of the boy, and the arrow
half the length of the bow; nor was the
pupil deemed an expert archer till he could
shoot the shaft twelve score yards at an
elevation of 45". The test of good archery
with Edward VI. was, that a hundred of
his youth, in rank, should send, at one dis-
charge, their hundred shafts clear through
an inch-board of heart of oak, at the dis-
tance of 240 yards!
It was at the battle of Falkirk, in 1298,
that the power of Enghsh archery became
supreme. Edward 1. interspersed his long-
bowmen among his other troops of every
description, and the battle was little less
than an unresisting slaughter of the best
of the Scottish warriors. At the battle of
Flodden-Field, the Scottish monarch, en-
raged at the slaughter of his troops, di-
rected 60 of his bravest knights, in Italian
armour, to rush on a body of English ar-
chers, and at the first discharge every
knight was killed by an arrow through his
person. P. de Comines, speaking of the
military power of England, France, and
Scotland, lays it down that 'the might of
the realm of England standeth on her ar-
chery.' Edward IV. directed that the long-
bow should be made of ewye, hazel, ash,
awburn, or reason-tree, but the ewye (yew)
was the preferable wood. The string was
made of hide, gut, horsehair, woman's hair,
hemp, or silk. The bow was directed to
be the precise height of the archer, and
one of six feet long was the maximum of
power. The most anxious care was bestow-
ed on the arrow. Its length was to be
exactly half that of the bow. The feathers
were not to be plucked from the goose,
but were to drop from the bird at the age
of between two and three years. Two of
the feathers were to be from the gander,
whilst the third, always placed uppermost
in the act of shooting, was to be dropped
by the goose. The arrow was pointed
with flint or steel, and the punishment se-
vere if the directions were in any respect
violated. To attain perfection in archery,
the practice of the yeomen, from the age
of seven, was incessant. Every Sunday
and feast-day they were compelled to shoot
at the butts; and great trials of skill took
place in every parish on anniversaries that
specially related to it. It was illegal, and
what was, perhaps, worse, it was disgrace-
ful, to shoot at a less distance than 220
yards. After this compulsory shooting, the
men were allowed to shoot for sport; and
a favourite pastime was to bury a goose
in the turf, and to shoot ofl' its head the
instant the devoted creature, in its strug-
gles, raised it above the surface. The long-
est shot upon record was that of the
Lancashire archer, who sent his shaft a
mile in three shots. It was a test with
our archers to send the cloth-yard shaft,
at 220 yards distant, through an oaken
plant from one to three inches in thick-
ness, and to lodge the arrow in a board
many yards in the rear. To lodge one
arrow in the clout, a piece of white cloth
put for the bull's eye, and to split the
head of it at the second shot, was a com-
mon feat, and we frequently read of shoot-
ing off the prickles from the thorn bushes,
as proofs of rustic skill. Had the use of
archery been continued in modern Europe,
there can be no doubt that the bow and
arrow would have been much improved.
The Diving-bell is a very useful machine,
for it enables men to do many things under
water which they could not do without it.
It is in shape like a bell, and has weights
at the bottom when let down into the water.
to prevent it turning over. The air insid«*
prevents the water from running into it,
just as the air in a hollow vessel or glass
tumbler does, when put into water with the
mouth downwards. A forcing pump sends
down fresh air to the men inside, and
enables them to stop under water as long
as convenient.
By means of the diving-bell, the ground
can be examined at any particular place
under water, where wrecks have happened;
and rocks may be blown up, if necessary,
to make a better foundation to build upon,
wether it be for a bridge or a lighthouse.
You will say, how can they blow up rocks
with gunpowder under water? Very easily.
The men in the diving-bell bore holes in
the rocks, and put in them tin cartridges
a foot long, fdled with gunpowder, with
sand over them. There is a tin pipe fasten-
ed to the top of the cartridge, and as the
diving-bell is raised higher and higher, fresh
pipes are added, till, at last, the tin pipe
is above the water. They have then only
to drop a small piece of red-hot iron down
the piping, and bounce goes the gunpowdei-
at once, blowing up the rock. Many articles
are got out of vessels at sea, that have
been lying under water for years, by means
of the diving-bell. tP. Parley.)