Boekgegevens
Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
URL: https://schoolmuseum.uba.uva.nl/bookid/LCSM_204683
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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•188
dance, not only in the vicinity of, but ac-
tually associated with the coal necessary to
Separate the metal from the impurities of
the ore, so as to render it fit for our use.
In Sweden, and most other countries
where iron mines exist, the ore is refined
by means of wood ; but no space on the
surface of our island could have been spar-
ed to grow timber for such a purpose; and
thus, without coal, in place of being, as we
are now, great exporters of wrought and
unwrought iron to distant nations, we must
have depended on other countries for this
metal; to the vast detriment of many of !
our manufactures, which mainly owe their
improvement and extension to the abun-
dance and consequent cheapness of iron.
There are extensive mines of lead in
Derbyshire, Yorkshire, Northumberland,
Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire, and several
other places in Great Britain, sufficient not
only for the internal demand for that me-
tal,' but yielding a considerable amount for
exportation. Copper is produced in large
quantities in Cornwall, and the same country
has been celebrated for its tin mines for
nearly two thousand years.
Coal, iron, lead, copper, and in, are the
principal minerals of our country, which, in
common language, are usually associated
with the idea of the produce of mines.
Silver and gold we have none, with the ex-
ception of a little of the former contained
in some of the ores of lead, and which is
separated by refining, when in sufficient
quantity to yield a profit beyond the ex-
pense of the process; but we have some
other metals, highly useful in the arts, such
as zinc, antimony, and manganese.
Besides the substances above mentioned,
we have many other mineral treasures of
great importance still to be noticed. Of
these the most valuable perhaps is lime-
stone, from its use in agriculture, to ame- |
liorate and increase the fertility of the soil,
and from its being an indispensable ingre-
dient in mortar for building; and there are
not many parts of the island far distant
from a supply of this material. Building
stone is found in most parts of the coun-
try ; and although we must go to Italy for
the material for the art of sculpture to be
employed upon, we have freestones applic-
able to all the purposes of ornamental ar-
chitecture, and we have many marbles of
great beauty. If stones be far off, clay is
never wanting to supply a substitute; and
the most distant nations have their daily
food served up in vessels, the materials of
which, dug from our clay-pits, have given
occupation to thousands of our industrious
population in our potteries and cliina ma-
nufactures. For our supply of salt, that
essential part of the daily sustenance of al-
most every human being, we are not de-
pendent on the brine which encircles our
island, for we have in the mines and salt-
springs of Cheshire and Worcestershire al-
most inexhaustible stores of the purest
quality, unmixed with those earthy and
other ingi'edients which must be separated
by an expensive process, before a culinary
salt can be obtained from the water of
the sea.
In the formation of organized bodies, that
is, in the structure of animals and plants,
the most superficial observer cannot fail to
discover a beautiful and refined mechanism ;
but if we cast our eyes upon the ground,
and look at heaps of gravel, sand, clay,
and stone, it seems as if chance only had
brought them together, and that neither
symmetry nor order can he discovered in
their nature. But a closer examination
soon convinces us of that which, reasoning
from the wisdom and designs manifested by
other parts of creation, we might before-
hand have very naturally been led to ex-
pect, viz. that in all the varieties of form,
and structure, and change, which the study
of the mineral kingdom displays, laws as
fixed and immutable prevail, as in the most
complicated mechanism of the human frame,
or in the motions of the heavenly bodies;
and if astronomy has discovered how beauti-
fully Hhe heavens declare the glory of God,'
as certainly do we feel assured, by the
investigations of geology, that the eartli
'showeth his handy work.'
(Penny Afu?.)
147. IRON.
Iron is the most useful of all metals, and
jnan very early became acquainted with its
value. Moses speaks of furnaces of iron
and of the ores from which it was extract-
ed. By means of this metal ^the earth has
been cultivated, houses and cities built, and
without it few arts could be practised. Iron
is used in three states, cast iron, wrought
iron, and steel. When reduced to a liquid
by the action of the smelting furnace, it is
received in furrows made in a bed of sand .
the larger masses which have flowed into
the main furrows are called sows, the
smaller pigs, of iron. In this state it takes
the name of cast iron, and from the pro-
cess it has undergone it is become extreme-
ly hard, and having lost its tenacity, it
resists the hammer and the file, and is very
brittle; it is of a dark grey or blackish