Boekgegevens
Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
URL: https://schoolmuseum.uba.uva.nl/bookid/LCSM_204683
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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•171
His soul is friendly, just and free,
As generous as the sun: —
Diffusing warmth to those in need,
From out his hard-earned store;
And when his purse is low indeed,
He gladly toils for more.
His hand is hard — his heart is soft,
And freely he bestows.
The mite received from Him above,
To cheer both friends and foes.
His hfe is toil — his morsels tough —
His hopes are dull and dim;
But though to us the outside's rough
A diamond dwells within.
133. STEAM VESSELS.
Not the least important feature in mari-
time matters, at the present day, is the
application of steam power to vessels —
thence called steam-vessels.
In the year 1814, there was in England
but one of these vessels in existence and
that a very small one — in fact, it was
only an experimental ship; but one that
answered the object in view so well, that
they rapidly increased in number; and,
in the year 1838, there were as many as
750 in use in England alone.
The intention, on the first introduction
of steam-vessels, was to navigate narrow and
intricate rivers, where an ordinary sailing-
vessel could not, without extreme labour
and difficulty, make a passage, because she
could not exert the full power of her sails;
and the only other method of progression
was that of towing by boats — which was
rendered very tedious work, when, as is
frequently the case in rivers, a very strong
current has to be overcome. The steam-
vessel at once removed this obstacle to com-
merce; and it was found that she could not
only force her own way up a river, where
a strong current opposed her, but that she
could drag after her one or two trading
vessels, as large as herself, even against
wind and tide.
This fact caused the introduction of the
steam-tug; which is a small vessel, fitted with
an engine of from ten to thirty-horse pow-
er, and used solely for towing vessels up
and down narrow rivers, where a difficulty
of using sails exists. The tug sometimes
goes ahead of the vessel, and at others is
lashed alongside.
With the large steam-ships, voyages on
the open sea have been accomplished; and
we have now vessels of this description,
which sail from England to New York, and
other ports in America, Canada, &c., cross-
ing the Atlantic Ocean in about twelve or
ten days — a distance of 3500 miles. Be-
sides which, in almost every foreign port,
a steamer may now be met with.
Some few years ago, such an event was
deemed not only improbable, but absolute-
ly impossible to be accomplished. It was
supposed that no vessel, in proportion to
her size, could carry sufficient coal or fuel
for the supply of an engine, capable of
propelling her so great a distance; but,
however, subsequent facts have proved the
contrary, in a very satisfactory manner.
It is not necessary for me here to give
a description of the steam-engine: it will
be sufficient for my young readers to know,
that it is a machine constructed in a pe-
culiar manner, and motion is given to it,
by heating water contained in large boilers,
placed over a very strong fire, until driven
off in vapour, or steam. The steam is made
to pass through a tube into a certain part
of the machine, where, in its endeavours
to escape, it gives motion to it; and the
constant supply of steam from the boilers
keeps up the motion thus obtained. Steam-
engines are of various sizes, from one to
400-horse power; that is, they are capable
of performing as much work as that num-
ber of horses could perform if constantly
employed.
The power of production, by the improve-
ment of machinery, is immense. It was
stated at a public meeting, held lately in
Birmingham, that, in the year 1792, the
machinery in existence was equal to the
labour of 10,000,000 labourers; in 1827, it
had increased to equal 200,000,000; and, in
1833, to 400,000,000. In the cotton mills,
spindles, that used to revolve only fifty
times in a minute, now revolve 8000 times
in the same period. At one mill in Man-
chester there are 136,000 spindles at work,
spinning as as much as 1,200,000 miles of cot-
ton thread per week.
I merely mention the above circumstances,
to show the value of the introduction of
the steam-engine, and the great power ob-
tained by it. It is, therefore, no longer a
surprising fact, that, with the known ad-
vantages such a machine possessed on land,
vessels should be constructed and fitted with
such engines that she should be propelled
through the water, under any circumstances
— whether the wind was fair or against
her, or whether strong currents had to be
overcome, or a dead calm; in which latter
case, steam-vessels make their best pro-