Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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   First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
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given to the instrument in most European
countries being used here to signify a circle.
It has been, moreover, affirmed that Warco
Polo brought the compass into Europe from
China, about the year 1260. It appears
highly probable that the Chinese were ac-
quainted with it at an early period. Their
method is to place it on a small piece of
cork, and to set it to float on water. But
the art of communicating the magnetic
power to steel, and suspending the needle
on a pivot, is undoubtedly of European in-
vention. Mariners, however, at first adopted
the compass as a useful companion, and not
as the sole guide.
The mariner's compass has a circular
card attached to its needle which turns with
it, and in the circumference of which are
marked the degrees, and also the thirty-two
points, or rhumbs, likewise divided into half
and quarter points. The pivot rises from
the centre of the box called the compass-
box, which contains the needle and its card,
and which is covered with a glass top, to
prevent the needle being disturbed by the
agitation of the air. The compass-box is
suspended in a larger box, by means of
two concentric brass circles, called gimbals;
the outer ones being fixed by horizontal
pivots, both to the inner circle which car-
ries the compass-box, and also to the outer
box, the two sets of axes being at right
angles to each other. By means of this
arrangement, the inner circle, with the com-
pass-box, needle, and card, always retains
a horizontal position, notwithstanding the
rolling of the ship.
Not long after the compass was employed
for nautical purposes in Europe, human
curiosity which had been repressed by
false philosophy and gross superstition, be-
gan to shake off the fetters by which it
had been enthralled, and search for objects
of national pursuit. The spirit of enter-
prise and discovery kept pace with the
means which the progress of knowledge
gradually unfolded to aid and direct its ex-
ertions; and the facility of mutual com-
munication which navigation began to open
between remote countries was equally con-
ducive to the benefit of individuals and the
general advantage of nations. From this
era we may date the commencement of that
kind of intercourse between the inhabitants
of different countries, which properly de-
serves the appellation of commerce.
Much aid was afforded to the mariner,
in such enterprises, by the construction of
maps, bringing all the geographical know-
ledge respecting the earth together; mark-
ing out its difi'erent parts, and noting the
rocks, coasts, and quicksands to be avoided.
Now also was invented and brought into
use the astrolabe, a word formed from the
Greek, and denoting to take the height of
the stars. It consisted of two or more
circles, having a common centre, and so
inchned to each other as to enable the
mariner to observe in the planes of dif-
ferent circles of the sphere at the same
time. For example, if the circles were at
right angles, the instrument would give
both latitude and longitude, or the right
ascension or declination of a star.
The astrolabe was the original of the
quadrant, which is ascribed to two Jewish
physicians, named Roderic and Joseph.
This instrument is curiously contrived and
fitted up, according to the purpose for
which it is intended; but is consists essen-
tially of a limb or arch of a circle equal
to the fourth of the circumference, and
divided into ninety degrees, with subdivisions.
The figure of a naval officer, using a qua-
drant, was once frequently to be seen at
the door af a nautical instrument maker,
as the sign of his profession; but, like
many others, it has now become rare. The
sextant is another instnunent, the limb being
the sixth part of a complete circle, for
measuring the angular distances of objects
by reflection. The sextant is capable of
very general application; but it is chiefly
used as a nautical instrument for measur-
ing the altitudes of celestial objects, and
their apparent angular distances.
(Sailings over the globe.)
Upon the ocean's swelling tide,
Where mountain billows rave,
Behold the sailor's eye of pride
Glance o'er the angry wave.
High on the slippery bending mast
He reefs the snow-white sail,
And fears no angry threatening blast,
The lightning or the gale.
The sailor is a wanderer free,
And like the breeze will fly,
Far o'er the wide and trackless sea
With billows mounting high.
A Uon-heart that feels no pain —
A soul that knows no care;
He gaily sings and toils for gain.
That others too may share.
He firmly braves the swelling sea.
To earn a scanty sum;