Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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mouths of the Nile. Frequently employed
to assist in maritime business, he formed
the purpose of committing himself to the
mercy of the waves in a sailing-boat, that
he might once again behold his native coun-
try, and, providing himself according to his
best ability, set sail, resolving to perish in
the deep rather than to remain in bondage.
His success was signal; he traversed the
large expanse of waters which lies between
Egypt and Asia Minor, and arrived safely
at Pamphylia. The bold and unusual ad-
venture led to his receiving the appellation
of'the lone sailor.*
In the age of Homer anchors were un-
known , and large stones were used in their
stead. According to Pliny, the anchor was
invented by Eupalamus, and improved by
Anacharsis. When anchors were afterw^ards
used, they were generally made of iron,
and resembled in shape those which are
employed now. Each ship had several an-
chors; the one in which the Apostle Paul
sailed had four, and others had eight. To
show where the anchor lay, a bundle of
cork floated over it on the surface of the
waters. Of the several anchors belonging
to each ship, one exceeded the rest in size
and strength. This was called the sacred
anchor, and was used only when danger
was great, so that the phrase, 'To throw
out the sacred anchor,' became a proverb
applicable to those who were driven to the
greatest extremity.
The object of the Romans in practising
navigation was to subserve their conquests;
but the extremities of the known world were
ransacked to gratify their luxury, and thus
maritime enterprise was indirectly promoted.
When their ships were unemployed in war,
they made a survey of the dominions ac-
quired by their arms. Thus Agricola, the
governor of Britain, discovered it to be an
island by sailing round it, towards the close
of the first century of the Christian era.
In like manner they explored the ocean in
various directions.
The vessels employed by the Phoenicians
and other nations about the same period,
and intended for commercial purposes, were
without keels, and bore a certain resem-
blance to the barges of the Hollanders at
the present day. They were flat-floored,
round, drawing little water, and very broad
in proportion to their length, so that they
might contain a larger quantity of commo-
dities than they could under any other form.
The officers of an ancient vessel differ
considerably from those required now. One
was the master of the rowers, on whom it
devolved to assign their places to the rowers,
to encourage them in their labours, and to
keep time to the motion of the oars, by
the musical intonations of his voice , or by
the strokes of his mallet. Another was the
pilot, or master of the ship, whose place
was at the stern, to whom belonged the
duty of navigating the vessel, and which
could only be discharged by varied know-
ledge as to the working parts of his ship,
the winds, the heavenly bodies, the position
of rocks and quicksands, and the site of
commodious ports and harbours. When the
ancients saw the winter signs to rise, they
retired into harbour, and there continued
till the constellations of spring invited them
again to trust themselves to the waters.
Still the vessels employed were of a very
humble character. Ormus is described to
us as a commercial city of the first import-
ance, and the great emporium of this part
of Asia. This distinction was maintained
by keeping up the communication between
Persia and India, and still more by being
one of the great channels through which
the commodities of India were conveyed to
Europe; and yet the vessels employed in
carrying on this extensive trade were very
rude. T-hey had only one mast, the planks
were fastened with ropes and wooden pins
instead of nails, and covered with a fibrous
stuff like horsehair; the cargo was covered
over with leather. The native vessels on
the opposite coast of Arabia were con-
structed for many ages in a manner nearly
Meanwhile the natives of Britain were
but slenderly provided with the means of
transit. A short time ago some workmen,
engaged in making a drain on the farm of
Knaven, on the estate of Nethermuir, in
the country of Aberdeen, discovered a boat,
evidently of great antiquity, quite entire,
and still in high preservation. It was found
at a depth of five feet from the surface,
in a deposit of moss, at the head of a small
ravine. It is formed out of a soUd oak
tree, is eleven feet long and nearly four
broad, having at the stern a projecting
part, with an eye in it for the purpose of
mooring. It is of a very rude manufacture,
and the mark of the hatchet or instrument
by which it was constructed is still visible.
It is clear, however, that the ancient Bri-
tons used to cross the English and Irish
Channels in vessels of wickerwork covered
with skins. They were found when the Ro-
mans invaded our island, and are still seen
in use on the Severn and among the people
of South Wales. The ships with which the
Britons vainly strove to oppose the progress
of Julius Caisar were made with bottoms