Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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   First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
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fitted up as shops. There is no theatre at
Oxford, dramatic representations not being
now allowed in the city.
Considered with reference to the elective
franchise, Oxford enjoys the privilege of
sending four members to parliament; two
of them represent the interests of the Uni-
versity, and two are sent by the city, which
has possessed the privilege of having re-
presentatives in the parliament ever since
the reign of Edward I. The right of elec-
tion was vested in the mayor, corporation,
and freemen, until the Reform Bill came
into operation. The number of electors
was about 2000, of whom 1739 were polled
in four days during the contest of 1830.
The number of houses worth lOL. a year
within the present boundary is 2389 , which
therefore affords the number of persons
eligible as electors under the altered fran-
chise. In 1831 the total number of houses
was 3936, of which 97 were unoccupied,
and 51 new houses were building. The
population at the same period amounted,
including the inmates of the University, to
22,624, which was an increase, in the city
exclusively, of 4285 persons since the year
1821. As the population returns were made
up before the establishment of the present
boundaries, the following statements must
be understood to apply to the former bound-
ary, which comprised a population of
20,649. Of this number, 10,551 were males,
and 10,098 females. The number of males
above 20 years of age was 5791, of whom
117 were employed in agriculture, as oc-
cupiers, or labourers; 5 in manufacture;
2583 in retail trade, or in handicraft, as
masters or workmen; 1306 were capitahsts,
bankers, professional and other educated
men; 831 labourers, not agricultural; 677
other males, above 20 years of age, except
servants; 272 male servants, above 20 years
of age, 84 under that age; and 1240 female
TheUniversity. — The period at which
the University of Oxford was really found-
ed, is a question involved in much dispute
and controversy, which it would not be
either profitable or interesting to state.
What the Trojans, the Britons, the Romans,
or the Saxons, may have done at Oxford,
it is not now possible to ascertain; and as
we know that no establishments resembling
what we call universities existed in Europe,
until the latter end of the twelfth or be-
ginning of the thirteenth centuries, the
whole question amounts to this — at what
time schools began to be first established
at Oxford? To answer this question pro-
perly , it would be necessary to find at
what time monastic establishments were
first founded there; because there was, in
these early times, no education afforded
separately from such establishments, and
any place which possessed a number of
them thus became a seat of such learning
as then existed ; but it could not claim to
be considered as a university more than
any other place in which a considerable
number of independent schools happened
to be situated. We know that Oxford pos-
sessed monasteries in the time of Alfred,
and as that prince resided much at Ox-
ford, we may safely conclude that he did
not fail to exert himself in encouraging
the schools in connection with these esta-
bhshments; and it is probably thus that
Alfred acquired the reputation of being
the founder, or at least restorer ofthe uni-
versity. No doubt the schools at Oxford
flourished under the encouragement of fol-
lowing monarchs; but if we are to confine
the term university to a corporate establish-
ment, with the privileges of holding pro-
perty and conferring academic distinctions,
the University of Oxford did not exist
until long after the Conquest: if, however,
the term may be extended to a place in
which the principal branches of existing
knowledge are taught on an extensive scale,
then the University of Oxford may have
existed at a much earlier period; although
it possessed no greater pre-eminence than
naturally arose from the number of its
monastic institutions, and the frequent pre-
sence of the court. Its schools might thus
have been more numerous and better at-
tended than those of many other towns,
and they probably acquired some small
privileges, which were gradually augmented,
until the plan of the modern University was
After the Norman Conquest, Robert
D'Oyley, whom we have already mentioned,
when he had secured the obedience ofthe
town by erecting the castle, applied him-
self to the encouragement of learning; he
founded near the castle a college of secular
canons, the students of which took the
title of the Warden and Scholars of St.
George within the Castle. Henry I., sur-
named Beauclerc, from his love of learning,
was educated at Oxford, and during his
reign gave much attention to the studies
of the place; and is said to have granted
to the teachers and scholars some import-
ant privileges in their individual capacity.
In the following reign the study of civil
law was introduced, under the patronage
of Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury;
but generally the state of learning was at