Boekgegevens
Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
URL: https://schoolmuseum.uba.uva.nl/bookid/LCSM_204683
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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•136
mer country, and were in time extended
to the latter. The English law, as it is
comprehensively termed, is of two kinds—
written or statute law, consisting of the
laws established by acts of Parliament, and
consuetudinary law, consisting of customs
which have existed from time immemorial
and have received the sanction of the
judges. Consuetudinary law is again divided
into common law and equity — the former
is administered by courts which profess to
adhere strictly to the old laws of England,
except in so far as they are altered by sta-
tute; the latter was founded upon the prin-
ciple that the king, in cases of hardship,
was entitled to give relief from the strict-
ness of the common law. Equity, though
thus originated, has now become also a
fixed kind of law, and is administered in
courts which decide according to establish-
ed rules.
The peculiar boast of the criminal law of
the British empire is Trial by Jury. In
England and Ireland, where the principle
of the criminal law requires the injured
party or his representative to prosecute, he
can only do so by permission of a jury of
accusation, called the Grand Jury; another
jury sits for the purpose of deciding whether
the evidence apinst the accused has estab-
hshed the guilt. These juries consist in
England of twelve men, whose verdict must
be unanimous, in Scotland, there is no
grand jury, and there the jury upon the
charge consists of fifteen men, who decide
by a majority of votes. The jury is an in-
stitution of Scandinavian origin, transmitted
to Britain through the Danes and Saxons,
and it is justly considered as amost efficient
protection of the subject from the vindic-
tiveness of power. Civil cases, turning upon
matters of fact, are also decided by juries
in all parts of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords, as the great council
of the sovereign, acts as a court of final
appeal from the civil tribunals of Britain
and Ireland. Practically, the business of
hearing these appeals is undertaken by some
law lord, such as the Lord Chancellor, who,
as there must be three persons present, is
usually accompanied by a temporal peer and
a bishop. Before deciding, the House some-
times demands the opinions of the English
judges.
Next in point of value to the privilege
of trial by jury, the British subject places
the right of petition to the Houses of Par-
liament, either for an improvement in the
laws or a redress of grievances. As this
involves the right of assembling publicly
in a peaceful manner, or of meeting consti-
tutionally, to discuss measures of govern-
ment and legislation, it is allowed to form
the impregnable bulwark of British political
freedom.
All classes of religious thinkers receive
toleration from the British government, ex-
cept those who openly offend against public
decency and the public peace. In England
and Ireland, the Protestant Episcopalian
form of church government and worship is
established in intimate alliance with the
state, the sovereign being its supreme head,
with a hierarchy composed of archbishops,
bishops, deans, archdeacons, and other
clergy; in Scotland, the established religion
is the Protestant Presbyterian, the clergy
of which are all equal in status, and have
no authorities but those which they form
collectively in their own courts.
In England, the established Church com-
prehends above 12,000 places of worship.
The church in Ireland numbers nearly
1400 benefices, distributed over above 2000
parishes; while the Scottish Presbyterian
establishment embraces above 12,000 chur-
ches in about 1000 parishes. The establish-
ed clergy of the three kingdoms are sup-
ported by public funds, chiefly arising from
the fruits of the earth; hence their congre-
gations, in general, enjoy their ministrations
gratuitously. Nevertheless, a large propor-
tion of the middle and lower classes of the
people in the three kingdoms prefer sup-
porting, by voluntary contribution, religious
ministrations more accordant with their pe-
cuUar opinions.
The chief institutions for education in
England are — the ancient national univer-
sities of Oxford and Cambridge; the more
recent colleges of London, Durham, and
Lampeter in Wales; the classical schools of
Eton, Westminster, Winchester, Harrow,
Chartex'house, and Rugby; the military col-
lege of Sandhurst; and the East India Com-
pany's seminaries at Haileybury and Addis-
combe; the colleges of various dissenting
denominations; and the elementary schools
of the National and British and Foreign
Societies. There are numerous schools for
elementary instruction, which are conducted
by private exertion, and supported by fees,
along with, in some instances, aid from the
state. After all that is done, however, there
is still a great and lamentable deficiency in
educational establishments. Latterly, some
Schools of Design, for conferring instruc-
tion in regard to ornamental drawing, have
been instituted in the chief towns, and are
supported by government. Much useful in-
struction is also now imparted by Mecha-