Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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   First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
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Tlie two Houses of Parliament usually
sit, during a considerable portion of every
year, in deliberation upon the affairs of the
country, and for the enactment of new, or
the repeal of old laws. Any member of
either House may propose a new law; but
this duty is chiefly undertaken by the king's
ministers, and it is to the Lower or Com-
mons' House that new laws are usually first
proposed. When a proposed law has been
introduced in the shape of a bill, and sanc-
tioned in one House, it passes on to the
other, which may receive, reject, or modify
it. If it passes both, it is submitted to the
king, who may give or withhold his appro-
bation. When it has received the sanction
of all the three branches of the legislature
it is called an Act of Parliament, and be-
comes part of the laws of the country.
The bills for the pecuniary supplies neces-
sary for the public service, are introduced
exclusively by the House of Commons: they
may be rejected by the House of Lords;
but for that House to alter them, or to in-
troduce any bill which involves pecuniary
supply to the government, is considered a
breach of the privileges of the Lower House.
The public revenue of the United King-
dom is at present derived principally from
five sources — namely customs, excise,
stamp-duties, assessed taxes, and property
and income tax. Custom-duties are char-
ged on most articles imported into, or ex-
ported from, the country. Excise-duties
are charged on certain commodities pro*
duced or manufactured at home. Stamp-
duties are mostly laid on the parchment or
paper on which certain deeds, receipts,
newspapers, bills, and promissory-notes, are
written or printed, and derive their name
from the parchment or paper being im-
pressed with a stamp, stating the amount
of the duty. Assessed taxes include the
duties on various things of personal pos-
session and use, from lands and houses to
dogs and hair-powder. There are some
other inferior sources of revenue, such as
the Post-office.
The revenue of the United Kingdom
amounted in the year ending April 5,1851,
to upwards of Sterl. 52,000,000, and the
expenditure lo a somewhat smaller sum.
The public expenditure is made up of a
vast variety of items, the most important
of which are the interest of the National
Debt, and the maintenance of the army and
navy. The amount of the debt in 1851 was
nearly Sterl. 800,000,000, chiefly composed
of various stocks, or loans at certain rates
of interest. Lenders of money to the pub-
lic are called stock or fund holders. The
interest payable on the debt in 1851 was
above Sterl. 28,000,000.
The home territories of the empire are
alone concerned in maintaining and control-
ling the government. It has been seen that
an attempt to raise taxes in the colonies
of North America, which sent no parlia-
mentary representatives to join in imposing
them, was the means of separating these
colonies from the parent state. Since then,
no similar attempt has been made in any
other colonies of Great Britain. The most
important of these, exclusive of India, are
managed under the supreme direction of
the British government, by governors ap-
pointed by the king, and by legislative
bodies, raised within themselves, ami re-
sembling the British Parliament. The re-
venue of the home-country is, nevertheless,
employed in protecting and fostering tliese
dependencies, which have been ascertained
to cost considerably more, year by year,
than any direct profit with can be derived
from the commerce which they carry on
with British merchants.
The army of Great Britain has always
maintained a high reputation for good con-
duct, valour, and fortitude; and her navy,
unequalled in the annals of the world, has
afforded the means of protecting her com-
merce, and securing her possessions in the
most distant quarters of the globe. The
average annual expense ofthe armvis Sterl.
7,500,000; and that of the navv, Sterl.
The British army numbers nearly 130,000
men; the fleet is composed of 678 vessels,
with 180,000 guns. Of the land-forces, a
fifth is employed in the East Indies, the
rest in the United Kingdom and on foreign
stations. Though the naval force is always
kept in an efficient state to the extent men-
tioned, only a small proportion of it is em-
ployed in time of peace. Ships of the first
rate are all three-decked, and carry at least
100 guns, and 800 men, those of the se-
cond rate carry at least 80 guns, and 700
men; the third at least 70 guns, and 600
men; the fourth at least 50 guns, and 400
men; the fifth at least 36 guns, and 250
men; and the sixth at least 24 guns, and
under 250 men.
A distinguishing feature in the organisa-
tion of the British army and navy, is the
care taken of the men. Few nations so gen-
erously as Britain clothe, feed, and pay
their soldiers and sailors, and otherwise
render them so comfortable.
Justice, civil and criminal, is administered
in England and Ireland according to laws
and forms which took their rise in the for-