Boekgegevens
Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
URL: https://schoolmuseum.uba.uva.nl/bookid/LCSM_204683
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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•134
form Bill in 1832, when the power of elect-
ing the majority of the House of Commons
heing extended to the middle-classes ofthe
people, the democratic principle was, for
the first time, brought into any consider-
able degree of force.
The number of members in the House of
Lords (1852) is 448; namely, 3 princes of
the blood-royal, 20 dukes, 21 marquises,
114 earls, 22 viscounts, 194 barons, 16 peers
of Scotland, 28 peers of Ireland, 20 Eng-
lish prelates, and 4 Irish representative pre-
lates.
The House of Commons consists of 656
members; of whom 253 are chosen by
counties, 6 by universities, and 397 by ci-
ties, boroughs, and towns. England returns
469 members, Wales 29, Ireland 105, and
Scotland 53. The number of persons en-
titled to vote in the election of these mem-
bers is somewhat above a million; of whom
about 620,000 vote for county members,
5000 for representatives of universities, and
440,000 for members for cities, boroughs,
and towns.
The qualification of an elector for a mem-
ber of the House of Commons in counties,
is the having been entitled to vote on a
freehold quahfication before the passing of
the Reform Act (1832); or the holding land
in copyhold of the clear annual value of
ten pounds; or the possessing land or hou-
ses of ten pounds annual value in property,
or on a lease of not less than sixty years
in England, and fifty-seven in Scotland; or
the occupation of lands or tenements in
England for any period, and in Scotland
for nineteen years, at an annual rent of not
less than fifty pounds. The qualification of
a borough elector, is the occupation of a
house of ten pounds annual rent; the resi-
dent freemen in English and Irish boroughs
being also allowed to vote. The utmost
duration to which a Parliament can extend,
is seven years; and a new House of Com-
uions must be elected within six months
after the commencement of every new reign.
The king, however, frequently exercises his
prerogative of dissolving Parliament a con-
siderable time before the expiration of the
full time allowed to it by law.
The members of the House of Lords
enjoy their seats from hereditary privilege.
The sovereign possesses the power of creat-
ing peers, and of nominating bishops. The
Scottish representative peers are elected
by the whole body of the peerage of that
country, at the commencement of every
new Parhament, or on the occurrence of a
vacancy; the Irish representative peers are
elected also by the whole body of the
peerage of their country, but for fife. The
Irish spiritual peers sit in rotation. Sever-
al of the Scotch and Irish peers are also
peers of England, by virtue of which they
enjoy seats in the House of Lords, at the
same time that they exercise their elective
functions in Scotland or Ireland, as the case
may be.
The king is not only at the head of the
executive ; he is also the head of the church,
the commander of the army, the dispenser
af all titles of honour, and even, by a fic-
tion of the law, the person of whom all the
landed property in his dominions is held.
In the right of appointing the bishops, the
judges, the lords-lieutenant and justices of
peace of counties; the officers of the army
and navy, and many other officers and pub-
lic servants, he possesses a large amount
of patronage, which conduces in no small
degree, to the maintenance of his authority.
He has also the sole right of declaring war,
though he is effectually controlled by the
House of Commons, which may give or
withhold the requisite funds, as it seems
proper. Out of respect for the hereditary
principle and the royal character, it is held
that the king cannot of himself do any
wrong, or be personnally called to account
for his actions. The responsibility for the
performance of his functions rests with a
body of servants, chosen by himself, and
designated his Ministers, who cannot con-
tinue in that character without the appro-
bation of Parliament, and are liable to be
impeached by that body if they commit any
grievous error.
Twelve of these officers, named the First
Lord of the Treasury, the Lord Chancellor,
the Lord Privy Seal, the President of the
Council, the Secretary of State for the
Home Department, the Secretary of State
for the Foreign Department, the Secretary
of State for the Colonies, the Chancellor
of the Exchequer, the First Lord of the
Admiralty, the Master-general of the Ord-
nance, the President of the Board of Con-
trol, and the Chancellor of the Dutchy of
Lancaster, usually constitute what is called
the Cabinet Council, or Council of the
King's Cabinet, to deliberate upon all mat-
ters of importance. Beside this body, the
king has a Privy Council, consisting of per-
sons eniment from rank, office, or personal
character, who may be at variance with the
Cabinet Council, but take no share in the
government, except when summoned by the
royal authority. They are then in the same
situation with the Cabinet Ministers, and
responsible for the advice they give.