Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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Government in India. The revolt of the
Netherlands, by excluding the Butch from
their prolitable factorship of East India
|)roduce, induced them to engage in the
direct trade to India, which they did with
such brilliant success that the English were
soon induced to follow ^e example.
In the year 1599, jiSt a century from
the landing of Vasco de Gama on the coast
of Malabar, the first association was formed,
in London, for prosecuting trade between
England and India. On the 31 st of De-
cember of the following year, this asso-
riation obtained a charter, under the title
of 'The Governor and Company of Mer-
chants of London trading to the East In-
dies,' by which the Earl of Cumberland
and 215 other persons obtained, for a pe-
riod of 15 years, the exclusive right of
trading to all countries from the Cape of
Good Hope eastward to the Straits of
Magellan, excepting those which were in
the possession of friendly European powers.
The proprietors, thus incorporated, appoint-
ed a committee of twenty-four of their
number, and a chairman, who were to be
chosen annually for the management of
their affairs. Until 1613 the Company con-
sisted merely of a society, subject to par-
ticular regulations; each member managed
affairs on his own account, and was only
bound to conform to certain general rules.
Notwithstanding the disadvantages of this
arrangement, the profits of the trade in
this period amounted to from 100 to 200
per cent on the capital employed. In 1609
the Company obtained the renewal of its
charter for an unhmited period, subject,
however, to its being dissolved upon three
year's notice being given; and about two
years after, it was allowed permission to
establish factories at Surat, Ahmedabad,
Cambay, aud Goga, upon its agreeing to
pay a duty of 3Vj per cent, on all ship-
ments of merchandise. In 1612 the capital
was united, and the constitution in con-
sequence became more aristocratic; the
largest stock-holders having the principal
management, and the great body of the
proprietors having only a nominal control
in the general meetings. New funds were
raised; and the concerns of the Company
became so prosperous, that in the course
of four years, the shares rose to the value
of 203 per cent. Its factories, also, were
extended to Java, Sumatra, Bornea, the
Banda Islands, Celebes, Malacca, Siam, the
coast of Malabar and Coromandel, but
chielly in the states of the Mogul, whose
favour was anxiously cultivated. In con-
sequence of this success, a new subscrip-
tion, which was opened in 1616, produced
1,600,000 L.
But in 1627 the opposition to the Stuarts
brought into question the monopoly of the
Company, which rested only on a royal
grant, and many complaints of abuses and
bad management were brought forward.
The doubts as to the exclusive rights of
the Company were strengthened by the con-
duct of the crown, which, greatly to the dis-
advantage of the association, granted to in-
dividuals the privilege of trading to India.
The utmost efforts of the directors to ob-
tain the recall of this license were inef-
fectual until 1640, when, upon the promise
of its annulment, the corporation was re-
quired to raise a new joint stock in order
to carry on the trade on a sufficiently ex-
tensive scale. 'It appears probable,' says
a writer in the 'Companion to the News-
paper,' 'from this and other circumstances,
that in this early period of the Company's
operations, not only were the profits upon
the adventures paid to the subscribers, but
that the capital sum embarked was also
returned to them at the winding up of
each adventure.' The engagement to with-
draw the license of the rival company was,
however, not fulfilled; and both associations,
feeling the disadvantage that resulted from
competition, united their interests in 1650.
But five years after a schism occurred in
the Company itself; for a body of the pro-
prietors being dissatisfied with the manage-
ment of the directors, obtained permission
from Cromwell to fit out ships for trading
with India, but this association, also, form-
ed two years after a coahtion with the
parent company. Very "soon after the Re-
volution, the Company had a more formid-
able opposition to encounter. Capital had
accumulated in the country, which tho
owners wished to employ in commercial
speculations; and the people had come to
a little understanding of their pohtical rights.
Hence the question was started whether
the king could impose restrictions on com-
merce by a charter, and whether a sovereign,
who possessed the sovereignty conditionally,
could confer them on a privileged corpo-
ration: for the unlimited power of life and
death over British subjects in the East had
been granted in 1644; and in 1661 the right
of making peace and war with any prince
or people, not being Christians, was con-
ceded. The question was decided in the
negative by the House of Commons. But
the king having, nevertheless, renewed the
charter in 1693, the House passed a reso-
lution, 'That it is the right of all English-
men to trade to the East Indies, or to any