Titel: First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
Auteur: Herrig, Ludwig
Uitgave: Arnhem: J. Voltelen, 1869 *
Auteursrechten: Zie auteursrechten
Citeerinstructie: Bijzondere Collecties van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, UBM: IWO 513 H 21
Onderwerp: Taal- en letterkunde naar afzonderlijke talen: Engelse taalkunde
Trefwoord: Leesvaardigheid, Engels, Leermiddelen (vorm)
* jaar van uitgave niet op de gebruikelijke wijze verkregen, mogelijk betreft het een schatting
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   First English reading book: Engelsch leesboek voor instituten, gymnasiën en hoogere burgerscholen: met Nederlandsche woordenlijst
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ties by a treaty, wiiich was designed to
give an equal dominion to the trading com-
panies of the two countries on the east
coast of the Indian peninsula, but never
was definitively settled.
False maxims in commerce were the
chief cause of the disputes of the English
and French. A colony was at that time
regarded as a thing which existed for the
exclusive benefit of the country which had
settled it, and accordingly the merchants
of no other state were allowed to have any
intercourse with it. Other jealous notions
of the same kind were entertained, while
the) French, who have never been very
successful in establishing settlements, had
a maxim peculiar to themselves, and very
unfavourable to peace — that it was best
to endeavour to seize the colonies of other
nations after they had been fully formed.
After the peace of 1748, having been baf-
fled in many schemes of continental con-
quest, this lively nation began to turn their
thoughts towards commercial wealth, which
they perceived to be the foundation of
that strength which Britain had displayed
in so many contests. Excluded by Britain
from many of the accustomed channels of
commerce, they conceived themselves justi-
fied in commencing, from their settlements
in the East Indies and Canada, an aggres-
sive system with reference to the neigh-
bouring possession of the British; in par-
ticular, they drew a line of forts along the
back settlements of the whole range of
the British American colonies, from the
Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Mississippi,
so as to prevent the settlers from advan-
cing beyond the Appalachian mountains.
For two or three years the British go-
vernment suffered these aggressions, and
even insults of a more decided nature, to
pass unresented; but at length it was found
necessary, in 1756, to proclaim war. A
campaign of a novel and difficult character
was opened in North America, for the
purpose of driving the French from their
forts. All the first movements were attend-
ed with defeat and disaster. The French
had gained the exclusive affection of the
native Indians, who proved a dangerous
and barbarous enemy to the British. Se-
veral of the forts were attacked, but with-
out success: in the assault upon Ticon-
derago, two thousand men were killed. At
length, on the accession of Mr. "William
Pitt (afterwards Earl of Chatham) to the
office of Secretary of State, a more au-
spicious era commenced. The British troops
and provincials became more experienced
in the nature of the service. One after
another, the principal forts fell into their
hands; and a diversion was created by an
attack upon Canada. In September 1759,
General Wolfe reduced the town and fort
of Quebec, though at the expence of his
own life; and the whole colony soon after
submitted to the British arms. Meanwhile,
Colonel Chve hacr been equally successful
in the East Indies. He had destroyed the
French settlement at Pondicherry, thereby
securing to his country the whole coast of
Goromandel; and by his famous victory at
Plassey (June 26, 1756), over a combina-
tion of French and native forces, he laid
the foundation of the great territorial power
which the British have since gained in
Hindostan. (Chambers.)
The history of the East India Company
has had no parallel in the history of na-
tions. To trace the steps by which a com-
pany of merchants have mounted the throne
of Aurungzebe, before which the repre-
sentatives of their predecessors appeared
kneeling, with their hands bound before
them, is a subject requiring the most ex-
tensive and various knowledge.
From very early times, the commercial
enterprise of Europeans has been directed
towards an immediate intercourse with the
East Indies. To this, however, the extended
power of the Arabian khahfs, and the sub-
sequent establishment of the Turkish and
Persian monarchies opposed barriers which
were only imperfectly surmounted by the
Venetians, who long engrossed all the com-
merce which Europe had with the East. —
From the desire to partake in the wealth
which fiowed to Venice from» this source,
arose mainly the splendid maritime dis-
coveries of the Portuguese and Spaniards.
We hardly need remind our readers that
the discovery of America by Columbus was
an accident in his pursuit of a westward
passage to India.
The establishment of a maritime route to
India, by way of the Cape of Good Hope,
by Vasco de Gama, in the year 1498, threw
the commerce of the East into the hands
of the Portuguese, who held it without a
rival for nearly a hundred years; but the
power of Portugal in the East became
weakened by the union of that kingdom
with Spain, and its decline was accelerated
by the establishment of an exclusive com-
pany in 1587, which soon became involved
in disputes, eventually ruinous, with the